Closely follows an actual structural determination. After some introductory material on the nature of x-rays, the diffraction process, and the internal geometry of crystals, the selection and preparation of a crystal are considered. Techniques of measuring raw x-ray data are covered, plus their reduction into a useable form. The second part discusses both traditional and novel methods of solving the ''phase'' problem, the principal difficulty in x-ray structure determination. The third part considers how to extract the most information from the data and how to evaluate its reliability. Finally, there is a discussion of sources of error in practice and interpretation.Stout, George H. is the author of 'X-Ray Structure Determination A Practical Guide', published 1989 under ISBN 9780471607113 and ISBN 0471607118.