List of Maps XXIVList of Boxes XXVIIBooks Related Interest XXXPreface XXXIIntroduction XXXVII Chapter 11 Breakdown and Renewal in an Age of PlagueI. Population CatastrophesDemographic Decline/PlagueII. Economic Depression and RecoveryAgricultural Specialization/Protectionism/Technological Advances/The Standard of LivingIII. Popular UnrestRural Revolts/Urban Revolts/The Seeds of DiscontentIV. Challenges of the Governments of EuropeRoots of Political Unrest/The Nobility and Factional Strife/England, France, and the Hundred Years' War/The Tides of the Battle/The Effectors of the Hundred Years' War/The States of ItalyVI. The Fall of Byzantium and the Ottoman EmpireThe Fall of Constantinople Chapter 12 Tradition and Change in European Culture, 1300-1500I. The New LearningThe Founding of Humanism/Humanism in the Fifteenth Century/The Florentine Neoplatonists/The Heritage of the New LearningII. Art and the Artists in the Italian RenaissanceThree Friends/The High Renaissance/Status and PerceptionIII. The Culture of the NorthChivalry and Decay/Contemporary Views of Northern Society/Art and MusicIV. Scholastic Philosophy, Religious Thought, and PietyThe "Modern Way"/Social and Scientific ThoughtV. The State of ChristendomStyles of Piety/Movements of Doctrinal Reform Chapter 13 Reformations in ReligionI. Piety and DissentDoctrine and Reform/Causes of Discontent/Popular Religion/Piety and Protest in Literature and Art/Christian HumanismII. The Lutheran ReformationThe Conditions for Change/Martin Luther/The Break with Rome/Lutheran Doctrine and Practice/The Spread of Lutheranism/Lutheranism EstablishedIII. The Spread of ProtestantismZwingli and the Radicals/Persecution of the Radicals/John Calvin/Calvinism/The Anglican ChurchIV. The Catholic RevivalStrengths and Weaknesses/The Council of Trent/The Aftermath of Trent/Ignatius Loyola/Religion and Politics Chapter 14 Economic Expansion and a New PoliticsI. Expansion at HomePopulation Increase/Economic Growth/Social ChangeII. Expansion OverseasThe Portuguese/The Spaniards/The First Colonial EmpireIII. The Centralization of Political PowersTudor England/Louis XI and Charles VIII/The Growth of Government Powers/United Spain/Charles V, Holy Roman EmperorIV. The Splintered StatesV. The New StatecraftNew International Relations/Machiavelli and Guicciardini Chapter 15 War and CrisisI. Rivalry and War in the Age of Philip II Elizabeth I of England/The Dutch Revolt/Civil War in FranceII. From Unbounded War to International CrisisThe Thirty years' War/The Peace of WestphaliaIII. The Military RevolutionWeapons and Tactics/The Organization and Support of Armies/The Life of the SoldierIV. Revolution in EnglandPressures for Change/Parliament and Law/Rising Antagonisms/England Under CromwellV. Revolts in France and SpainThe France of Henry IV/Louis XIII/Political and Social Crisis/The Fronde/Sources of Discontent in Spain/Revolt and SecessionVI. Political Change in an Age of CrisisThe Unites Provinces/Sweden/Eastern Europe and the Crisis Chapter 16 Culture and Society in the Age of the Scientific RevolutionI. Scientific Advance from Copernicus to NewtonOrigins of the Scientific Revolution/The Breakthroughs/The Climax of the Scientific Revolution: Isaac NewtonII. The Effects of the DiscoveriesThe New Epistemology/Bacon and Descartes/Pascal's Protest Against New Sciences/Science InstitutionalizedIII. The Arts and LiteratureUnsettling Art/Unsettling Writers/The Return of Assurance to the Arts/Stability and Restraint in the ArtsV. Social Patterns and Popular CulturePopular Trends/Social Status/Mobility and Crime/Changes in the Villages and Cities/Belief in Magic and Rituals/Forces of Restraint/Conclusion Chapter 17 The Emergence of the European State SystemI. Absolutism in FranceThe Rule of Louis XChambers, Mortimer is the author of 'Western Experience ', published 2002 under ISBN 9780072565492 and ISBN 0072565497.