List of Maps XXIV List of Boxes XXVII Books Related Interest XXX Preface XXXI Introduction XXXVII Chapter 11 Breakdown and Renewal in an Age of Plague I. Population Catastrophes Demographic Decline/Plague II. Economic Depression and Recovery Agricultural Specialization/Protectionism/Technological Advances/The Standard of Living III. Popular Unrest Rural Revolts/Urban Revolts/The Seeds of Discontent IV. Challenges of the Governments of Europe Roots of Political Unrest/The Nobility and Factional Strife/England, France, and the Hundred Years' War/The Tides of the Battle/The Effectors of the Hundred Years' War/The States of Italy VI. The Fall of Byzantium and the Ottoman Empire The Fall of Constantinople Chapter 12 Tradition and Change in European Culture, 1300-1500 I. The New Learning The Founding of Humanism/Humanism in the Fifteenth Century/The Florentine Neoplatonists/The Heritage of the New Learning II. Art and the Artists in the Italian Renaissance Three Friends/The High Renaissance/Status and Perception III. The Culture of the North Chivalry and Decay/Contemporary Views of Northern Society/Art and Music IV. Scholastic Philosophy, Religious Thought, and Piety The "Modern Way"/Social and Scientific Thought V. The State of Christendom Styles of Piety/Movements of Doctrinal Reform Chapter 13 Reformations in Religion I. Piety and Dissent Doctrine and Reform/Causes of Discontent/Popular Religion/Piety and Protest in Literature and Art/Christian Humanism II. The Lutheran Reformation The Conditions for Change/Martin Luther/The Break with Rome/Lutheran Doctrine and Practice/The Spread of Lutheranism/Lutheranism Established III. The Spread of Protestantism Zwingli and the Radicals/Persecution of the Radicals/John Calvin/Calvinism/The Anglican Church IV. The Catholic Revival Strengths and Weaknesses/The Council of Trent/The Aftermath of Trent/Ignatius Loyola/Religion and Politics Chapter 14 Economic Expansion and a New Politics I. Expansion at Home Population Increase/Economic Growth/Social Change II. Expansion Overseas The Portuguese/The Spaniards/The First Colonial Empire III. The Centralization of Political Powers Tudor England/Louis XI and Charles VIII/The Growth of Government Powers/United Spain/Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor IV. The Splintered States V. The New Statecraft New International Relations/Machiavelli and Guicciardini Chapter 15 War and Crisis I. Rivalry and War in the Age of Philip II Elizabeth I of England/The Dutch Revolt/Civil War in France II. From Unbounded War to International Crisis The Thirty years' War/The Peace of Westphalia III. The Military Revolution Weapons and Tactics/The Organization and Support of Armies/The Life of the Soldier IV. Revolution in England Pressures for Change/Parliament and Law/Rising Antagonisms/England Under Cromwell V. Revolts in France and Spain The France of Henry IV/Louis XIII/Political and Social Crisis/The Fronde/Sources of Discontent in Spain/Revolt and Secession VI. Political Change in an Age of Crisis The Unites Provinces/Sweden/Eastern Europe and the Crisis Chapter 16 Culture and Society in the Age of the Scientific Revolution I. Scientific Advance from Copernicus to Newton Origins of the Scientific Revolution/The Breakthroughs/The Climax of the Scientific Revolution: Isaac Newton II. The Effects of the Discoveries The New Epistemology/Bacon and Descartes/Pascal's Protest Against New Sciences/Science Institutionalized III. The Arts and Literature Unsettling Art/Unsettling Writers/The Return of Assurance to the Arts/Stability and Restraint in the Arts V. Social Patterns and Popular Culture Popular Trends/Social Status/Mobility and Crime/Changes in the Villages and Cities/Belief in Magic and Rituals/Forces of Restraint/Conclusion Chapter 17 The Emergence of the European State System I. Absolutism in France The Rule of Louis XIV/Government/Foreign Policy/Domestic Policy/The End of an Era/France After Louis XIV II. Other Patterns of Absolutism The Habsburgs at Vienna/The Hohenzollerns at Berlin/Rivalry and State Building/The Prussia of Frederick William I/Frederick the Great/The Habsburg Empire/The Habsburgs and Bourbons at Madrid/Peter the Great at St. Petersburg III. Alternatives to Absolutism Aristocracy in the United Provinces, Sweden, and Poland/The Triumph of the Gentry in England/The Growth of Stability/Contrasts in Political Thought IV. The International System Diplomacy and Warfare/Armies and Navies/The Seven Years' War Chapter 18 The Wealth of Nations I. Demographic and Economic Growth The New Demographic Era/Profit Inflation: The Movement of Prices/Protoindustrialization II. The New Shape of Industry Towards a New Economic Order/The Roots of Economic Transformation in England/Cotton: The Beginning of Industrialization III. Innovation and Tradition in Agriculture Convertible Husbandry/The Enclosure Movement in Britain/Serf and Peasants on the Continent IV. Eighteenth-Century Empires Mercantile and Naval Competition/The Profits of Empire/Slavery, the Foundation of Empire/Mounting Colonial Conflicts/The British Foothold in India Chapter 19 The Age of Enlightenment I. The Enlightenment The Broadening Reverberations of Science/Beyond Christianity/The Philosophies/Diderot and the Encyclopedia II. Eighteenth-Century Elite Culture Cosmopolitan High Culture/Publishing and Reading/Literature, Music and Art III. Popular Culture Popular Literature/Literacy and Primary Schooling/Sociability and Recreation Chapter 20 The French Revolution I. Reform and Political Crisis Enlightened Absolutism in Central and Eastern Europe/Joseph II and the Limits of Absolutism/Constitutional Crises in the West/Upheavals in the British Empire II. 1789: The French Revolution Origins of the Revolution/Fiscal Crisis and Political Deadlock/From the Estates General to the National Assembly/The Convergence of Revolutions III. The Reconstruction of France The New Constitution/The Revolution of the Church/Counterrevolution, Radicalism, and War IV. The Second Revolution The National Convention /The Revolutionary Crisis/The Jacobin Dictatorship/The Sans-culottes: Revolution From Below/The Revolutionary Wars Chapter 21 The Age of Napoleon I. From Robespierre to Bonoparte The Thermidorian Reaction/The Directory/The Brumaire Coup II. The Napoleonic Settlement in France The Napoleonic Style/Political and Religious Settlements/The Era of the Notables III. Napoleonic Hegemony in Europe Military Supremacy and the Reorganization of Europe/Naval War with Britain/The Napoleonic Conscription Machine IV. Opposition to Napoleon The "Spanish Ulcer"/The Russian Debacle/German Resistance and the Last Coalition/The Napoleonic LegendChambers, Mortimer is the author of 'Western Experience ' with ISBN 9780072565478 and ISBN 0072565470.