This book covers a variety of topics related to kinetic theory in neutral gases and magnetized plasmas, with extensions to other systems such as quantum plasmas and granular flows. A comprehensive presentation is given for the Boltzmann equations and other kinetic equations for a neutral gas, together with the derivations of compressible and incompressible fluid dynamical systems, and their rigorous justification. Several contributions are devoted to collisionless magnetizedplasmas. Rigorous results concerning the well-posedness of the Vlasov-Maxwell system are presented. Special interest is devoted to asymptotic regimes where the scales of variation of the electromagnetic field are clearly separated from those associated with the gyromotion of the particles. This volumecollects lectures given at the Short Course and Workshop on Kinetic Theory organized at the Fields Institute of Mathematical Sciences in Toronto during the Spring of 2004.Passot, Thierry is the author of 'Topics in Kinetic Theory', published 2005 under ISBN 9780821837238 and ISBN 0821837230.