Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527) was born in Florence. He served the Florentine republic as secretary and second chancellor, but was expelled from public life when the Medici family returned to power in 1512. His other works include The Discourses, The Art of War, and the comic satireThe Mandrake. Peter Constantine is the recipient of a PEN Translation Prize and a National Translation Award. His Modern Library translations include The Essential Writings of Machiavelli, Voltaire's Candide,and Tolstoy'sThe Cossacks. He lives in New York City. Albert Russell Ascoli is Gladys Arata Terrill Distinguished Professor of Italian Studies at the University of California, Berkeley, and was awarded the Rome Prize for study at the American Academy in Rome.Machiavelli, Niccolo is the author of 'The Prince', published 2008 under ISBN 9780812978056 and ISBN 0812978056.