Preface Note to Students PART I. THE AIMS OF ARGUMENT 1. An Overview of Key Terms What Is Argument? / How Should We Approach Argument? / What Are the Aims of Argument? / Arguing to Inquire / Arguing to Convince / Arguing to Persuade / Arguing to Negotiate / The Aims of Argument: A Summary / What Is Rhetoric 2. Reading an Argument Before You Read / Recalling Prior Knowledge / Considering the Rhetorical Context / As You Read / The First Reading / Anna Quindlen, "Making the Mosaic" / The Second Reading / The Third Reading / After You Read 3. Analyzing an Argument: A Simplified Toulmin Method A Preliminary Critical Reading / William F. May, "Rising to the Occasion of Our Death" / A Step-by-Step Demonstration of the Toulmin Method / Analyzing the Claim / Analyzing the Reasons / Analyzing the Evidence / Noting Refutations / Summarizing Your Analysis / Student Sample: An Argument for Analysis: Amber Young, "Capital Punishment: Society's Self-Defense" 4. Preparing to Write: Arguing to Inquire The Importance of Inquiry / Questions for Inquiry / Inquiry and Written Arguments: The Process of Dialogue / A Preliminary Critical Reading / Michael Levin, "The Case for Torture" / A Sample Dialogue / Evaluating an Argument: An Analysis Based on Inquiry / Preparing to Write / From Dialogue to Draft / A Sample Analysis: "Michael Levin's 'The Case for Torture': A Dangerous Oversimplification" / William Murchison, "City Shouldn't Ignore Morality" / Student Sample: An Analysis Based on Inquiry: Cindy Tarver, "An Appeal to Prejudice" / Inquiring into a Range of Positions / The Exploratory Essay / Three Opposing Positions: William F. May, "Rising to the Occasion of Our Death," Sidney Hook, "In Defense of Voluntary Euthanasia," Matthewe Conolly, "Euthanasia Is Not the Answer" / A Sample Exploratory Essay: "Exploring the Issue of Voluntary Euthanasia" / Using Inquiry by Peers in Writing an Argument 5. Making Your Case: Arguing to Convince The Nature of Convincing: Structure and Strategy / Case Structure / Case Strategy / Anne Marie O'Keefe, "The Case against Drug Testing" / The Process of Convincing / Preparing a Brief / From Brief to Draft / Revising the Draft / Reader's Checklist for Revision / Editing and Proofreading / Student Sample: An Essay to Convince: Justin Spidel, "Who Should Have the Right to Marry?" 6. Appealing to the Whole Person: Arguing to Persuade A Matter of Emphasis: When to Convince and When to Persuade / Analyzing Your Readers / Who Is the Audience, and How Do They View the Topic? / What Are Our Differences? / What Do We Have in Common? / Reading a Persuasive Essay / Background / The Basic Message / Martin Luther King, Jr., "Letter from Birmingham Jail" / King's Analysis of His Audience: Identification and Overcoming Difference / Using the Forms of Appeal / The Appeal to Reason / The Appeal to Character / The Appeal to Emotion / The Appeal through Style / Drafting a Persuasive Essay / Conceiving a Readership / Discovering the Resources of Appeal / Reader's Checklist for Revising a Persuasive Essay / Student Sample: An Essay to Persuade: Joey Shanks, "An Uncomfortable Position" 7. Negotiation and Mediation: Resolving Conflict Negotiation and the Other Aims of Argument / The Process of Negotiation and Mediation / Understanding the Spirit of Negotiation / Understanding the Opposing Positions: Margaret Liu McConnell, "Living with Roe v. Wade," Ellen Willis, "Putting Women Back into the Abortion Debate" / Locating the Areas of Disagreement / Questions about Difference / Defining the Problem in Terms of the Real Interests / Inventing Creative Options / Gathering More Data / Reaching a Solution Based on Agreed-upon Principles / The Mediatory Essay / Roger Rosenblatt, "How to End the Abortion War" / Analyzing a Mediatory Essay / Writing a Mediatory Essay / Student Sample: A Mediatory Essay: Angi Grellhesl, "Mediating the Speech Code Controversy" 8. Image and Argument: Visual Rhetoric Understanding Visual Rhetoric / Analysis: Common Types of Visual Rhetoric / "Reading" Images / Advertisements / Editorial Cartoons / Public Sculpture / News Photographs / Graphics / Russell A. Barkley, "Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder" / Writing Assignments / One: Analyzing an Advertisement or Editorial Cartoon: Student Sample: Kelly Williams, "A Mother's Treat" / Two: Using Visual Rhetoric as Promotion for Your School / Three: Analyzing Your Own Visual Rhetoric / Four: Writing to Convince / Five: Using Graphics to Supplement Your Own Writing or Other Texts / Reader's Checklist for Using Graphics / Image and Argument: Color Section 9. Researching Arguments Finding an Issue / Understand That an Issue Is More Than Merely a Topic / Keep Abreast of Current Events / Research the News / Research Your Library's Periodicals Indexes / Inquire into the Issue / Finding Sources / Field Research / Library and Online Research / Internet Research / Evaluating Sources / Eliminate Inappropriate Sources / Carefully Record Complete Bibliographic Information / Read the Source Critically / Inquire into the Source / Consider How You Might Use the Source / Suggestions for Evaluating Sources / Using Sources / Taking Notes / Suggestions for Taking Notes / Paraphrasing / Suggestions for Paraphrasing / Summarizing / Suggestions for Summarizing / James Rachels, from The End of Life / Patrick Pugh, Summary of Excerpt from The End of Life / Creating an Annotated Bibliography / Incorporating and Documenting Source Material in the Text of Your Argument / Different Styles of Documentation / Guidelines for Using MLA and APA Style / Direct Quotations / Indirect Quotations / Creating a Works-Cited or Reference List / Books / Periodicals / Nonprint Sources / Electronic Sources / A Student Research Paper (MLA Style) PART II. READINGS: ISSUES AND ARGUMENTS 10. Immigration David Kennedy, Can We Still Afford to Be a Nation of Immigrants? / Peter Brimelow, Time to Rethink Immigration? / Linda Chavez, What to Do about Immigration / Nicolaus Mills, Lifeboat Ethics and Immigration Fears / David Maung, Photograph / Leslie Marmon Silko, The Border Patrol State 11. Feminism Cassandra Langer, What Is Feminism? / Deborah Rhode, Women's Movements, Men's Movements / Susan Faludi, The Backlash Against Feminism / Kirk Anderson, Cartoon / Naomi Wolf, The Beauty Myth / Christina Hoff Somers, The Backlash Myth / Katie Roiphe, The Independent Woman (and Other Lies) / Elizabeth Mitchell, An Odd Break with the Human Heart / Two Ads for Women's Jeans 12. Marriage and Family Arlene Skolnick, The Paradox of Perfection / Midge Decter, The Madness of the American Family / Betty Holcomb, Families Are Changing for the Better / Stephanie Coontz, The Future of Marriage / Cheney, Cartoon / Barbara Dafoe Whitehead, The Making of a Divorce Culture / David Popenoe, A World without Fathers 13. Gay and Lesbian Rights Jeffrey Nickel, Everybody's Threatened by Homophobia / Pete Hamill, Confessions of a Heterosexual / Gary Trudeau, Cartoon / Peter J. Gomes, Homophobic? Reread Your Bible / Jonathan Alter, Degrees of Discomfort / Jonathan Rauch, Beyond Oppression / Toni A. H. McNaron, In or Out in the Classroom? 14. The News and Ethics Jack Fuller, What Is News? / Michael Schudson, In All Fairness / Jim Squires, The ImpossibilityCarolyn Channell is the author of 'The Aims of Argument: A Rhetoric and Reader', published 1999 under ISBN 9780767411318 and ISBN 0767411315.