The wave of civil wars, terror attacks, and insurgencies over the last half century has redefined our notion of protracted conflicts. While the American news media have devoted primary coverage to the threat posed by al-Qaeda since 9/11, other insurgent groups have arisen and gained momentum across the map, and much less attention has been devoted to explaining what governmental policies bring such insurgencies to an end.These groups represent varying kinds of insurgency. Several strive for national liberation or territory. They are either secessionists who contend with a central government that they regard as hostile, or irredentists who seek to reunify a divided homeland. Others, with rural and peasant bases, emphasize economic inequalities, class struggle, and socialism. At least three known factions are explicitly Islamist, with a religious agenda and a paramilitary organization."Terror, Insurgency, and the State" is the result of a multiyear project, spearheaded by the late Marianne Heiberg, that assembled the findings of scholars who conducted extensive field research with rebel groups and governments. This comparative analysis documents the aim of long-standing insurgent groups including the Tamil Tigers, the IRA, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, the Kurdistan Workers' Party, Basque Fatherland and Liberty, and the People's Liberation Army of the Communist Party of Nepal, as well as the more recently visible Hizballah and Hamas.Heiberg, Marianne is the author of 'Terror, Insurgency, and the State Ending Protracted Conflicts', published 2007 under ISBN 9780812239744 and ISBN 0812239741.