PART 1. Meeting the Diverse Needs of a Diverse Classroom ISSUE 1. Are Single-Gender Classes the Only Way to Ensure Equal Educational Opportunities for Boys and Girls? YES: Janice Streitmatter, from "An Exploratory Study of Risk-Taking and Attitudes in a Girls-Only Middle School Math Class", The Elementary School Journal NO: Ann Pollina, from "Gender Balance: Lessons From Girls in Science and Mathematics", Educational Leadership Janice Streitmatter, a professor of educational psychology, argues that the culture and practices of the coeducational classroom limit educational opportunities for girls in a way that can now be overcome most easily (or perhaps only) through gender segregation. Ann Pollina, head of the Department of Mathematics at Westover School in Middlebury, Connecticut, analyzes the unique characteristics of pedagogy and classroom organization in girls-only mathematics and science programs. She argues that these characteristics can be re-created in coeducational classrooms and that such reform will lead to improved instruction and academic outcomes for boys as well as for girls. ISSUE 2. Should Ability-Level Tracking Be Abandoned? YES: Jeannie Oakes and Amy Stuart Wells, from "Detracking for High Student Achievement", Educational Leadership NO: Sally M. Reis et al., from "Equal Does Not Mean Identical", Educational Leadership Jeannie Oakes and Amy Stuart Wells, both professors in the Graduate School of Education and Information Studies at the University of California, Los Angeles, argue that tracking ensures that low-achieving students will be exposed to a watered-down curriculum, have access to fewer educational resources, and experience a less-than-stimulating school environment, all of which will prevent them from ever escaping their low-achieving track. They argue that all students should be expected to master the same curriculum. Professor of educational psychology Sally M. Reis and her colleagues argue that detracking leads teachers to adopt a middle-of-the-road curriculum that fails to challenge the best and brightest students in the class. They argue that tracking is critical for the success of the best and brightest students. ISSUE 3. Should English Immersion Replace Bilingual Education? YES: Keith Baker, from "Structured English Immersion: Breakthrough in Teaching Limited-English-Proficient Students", Phi Delta Kappan NO: Josephine Arce, from "Cultural Hegemony: The Politics of Bilingual Education", Multicultural Education Educational consultant Keith Baker argues that empirical evidence indicates that Structured English Immersion, which provides academic instruction in English, leads to larger gains in academic achievement and English mastery than bilingual education, which provides academic instruction in the students' native language. Josephine Arce, an assistant professor of elementary education, argues that the anti-bilingual-education movement sweeping the country has resulted from a conservative political agenda designed to oppress racial and ethnic minorities. She asserts that the empirical evidence supports the superiority of bilingual education over Structured English Immersion. ISSUE 4. Is Full Inclusion Always the Best Option for Children With Disabilities? YES: Mara Sapon-Shevin, from "Full Inclusion as Disclosing Tablet: Revealing the Flaws in Our Present System", Theory Into Practice NO: Naomi Zigmond and Janice M. Baker, from "Full Inclusion for Students With Learning Disabilities: Too Much of a Good Thing?" Theory Into Practice Mara Sapon-Shevin, a professor of education at Syracuse University, argues that all students, whatever the nature of their disability, are best served within the "regular" classroom alongside their typically developing peers. Naomi Zigmond, chair of the Department of Instruction and Learning at the University of Pittsburgh, and Janice M. Baker, an assistant professor at Vanderbilt University, argueAbbeduto, Leonard is the author of 'Taking Sides Clashing Views in Educational Psychology', published 2001 under ISBN 9780072480481 and ISBN 0072480483.