The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is the style manual most used by writers and students in psychology, the other behavioral and social sciences, nursing, criminology, and personnel areas. This fourth edition has been expanded and revised to include new features on current technological tools and on contemporary language issues and publishing standards. APA spent 10 years collecting data for this revision, and another 2 years of research and development represented the final phase of the revision. During the revision, APA focused on two goals to shape the changes: to encourage authors to write about their research with specificity and to guide them in writing about their participants with sensitivity and accuracy. The revisions to the fourth edition include * additional guidelines to reduce bias in language, * expanded instructions for presenting statistical information, * reference examples that include electronic media and a wider variety of legal materials, * updated information on preparing manuscripts with a word processor, and * general policies and ethics of scientific publication. The expanded section on bias provides general principles for sensitivity and specificity, as well as timely examples of problematic and preferred language. These language usage revisions are the result of a 5-year collaborative effort by APA's Publications and Communications Board and by other committees, organizations, and concerned individuals. The expanded section on presenting statistical information will prove invaluable for students. It offers detailed guidance on what constitutes sufficient statistics according to the type of analysis used in the study and gives information on statistical power, statistical significance, and effect size. More detailed sections on well-executed tables and figures will also aid the author's presentation of results. The information on preparing manuscripts has been updated to recognize that most manuscripts are composed with a word processor. Manuscript format requirements are more flexible and enable authors to take advantage of default settings available on most word processors. The Publication Manual also gives instruction on how to provide the accepted manuscript in electronic form so that the author's keystrokes can be preserved in production. A full section on the ethics of scientific publication is useful reading for the author, the editor, the peer reviewer, and scholarly publishers. The section explains the ethical issues of reporting results, plagiarism, authors' and peer reviewers' responsibilities, duplicate publication of data, verification of data, and treatment of research participants. Regular users of the Publication Manual will find the chapters on editorial style and manuscript preparation to be comfortably familiar and a bit easier to use than previous editions. This edition is richer in its examples of references, tables, figures, and problematic language. The Publication Manual covers the entire process of publication from organizing, writing, keying, and submitting manuscripts to seeing the accepted manuscript through production and publication.American Psychological Association Staff is the author of 'PUBLICATION MANUAL OF A P A' with ISBN 9781557982414 and ISBN 1557982414.