DR. Francis Pakes is a principal-lecturer at the University of Portsrnouth. He coordinates a number of MSc programmes at the Institute of Criminal Justice Studies, including an MSc in criminology and criminal psychology. His other books include comparative Criminal Justice (Willan 2004), Community Justice (co-edited with Jane Winstone, Willan 2005) and Applying Psychology to Criminal Justice (co-edited with David Carson, Becky Milne, Karen Shalev and Andrew Shawyer; Wiley 2007). Jane Winstone is a principal lecturer at the University of Portsmouth where she also coordinates probation training. Her main research interests are in the management of mental health in the criminal justice system and in youth crime. Her recent publications include Community Justice (co-edited with Francis Pakes, Willan 2005) and a co-authored chapter (with Francis Pakes) in Applying Psychology to Criminal Justice(Wiley 2007).Pakes, Francis is the author of 'Psychology and Crime Understanding and Tackling Offending Behaviour', published 2007 under ISBN 9781843922599 and ISBN 1843922592.