UNIT 1. Introduction to Research Methods 1.Babies' Musical Memories Formed in Womb, Nicola Jones, New Scientist , July 11, 2001 The author reviews studies that claim babies have preferences for music that was played to them before they were born. Other studies related to this area of research are discussed. This article provides the reader a good opportunity to critique popular press reports and evaluate possible internal validity issues. 2.Nightmare Scenarios, David Glenn, The Chronicle of Higher Education , October 24, 2003 Some researchers who study psychotherapy have recurring worries that a patient with a psychological disorder that is better treated using one specific type of therapy but the therapist nor the patients knows the research. Instead, the patient is offered a faddish treatment based on pseudoscience. The author discusses pros and cons of using the scientific method in clinical practice. 3.The Pursuit of Pseudoscience, Monique Cuvelier, Psychology Today , July/August 2001 Promises of miraculous cures and powers relate to the use of pseudoscience. This brief article recounts examples of bogus therapies and treatments. Moreover, the author points out the differences between the gimmicks of pseudoscience and empirically supported treatments. 4.Right Reasoning: S. I. Hayakawa, Charles Sanders Peirce, and the Scientific Method, Shawn Taylor, ETC: A Review of General Semantics , Summer 2002 Shawn Taylor favorably compares S.I. Hayakawa's and Charles Sanders Peirce's convictions that scientific investigation is the best method to analyze claims, assertions, ideas, and beliefs. According to Peirce's four methods of " fixing belief ," people from beliefs using tenacity, authority, a priori , and scientific investigation . Reviewed are the limitations of the first three methods and the details of why the scientific method is the right reasoning to use. 5.Rethinking Sociology: Applied and Basic Research, William Foote Whyte, American Sociologist , Spring 1998 A sociologist discusses the traditional lines of demarcation between applied and basic research in which those conducting basic research are afforded higher status. William Whyte criticizes this perspective and proposes instead that various forms of applied social research hold the greatest promise for advancing the field. 6.Basic and Applied Research on Choice Responding, Wayne W. Fisher and James E. Mazur, Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis , Volume 30, Number 3, 1997 The way in which people spend their time when choosing from several options is referred to as choice responding. Wayne Fisher and James Mazur review basic research on variables that influence choice responding, such as response effort and reinforcement rate, immediacy, and quality. The results of this research can help explain human behavior in nonclinical environments and improve further research and interventions. 7.College Students' Beliefs in the Ten-Percent Myth, Kenneth L. Higbee and Samuel L. Clay, Journal of Psychology , September 1, 1998 Do you think that psychology students trained in the scientific method and critical thinking , when compared to those without such training, are more likely to believe the misconception that humans use only about 10 percent of their potential brain power? Researchers examined this question, noting how many students mentioned any kind of research or evidence to support their beliefs. UNIT 2. Preparing to Do RZechmeister, Jeanne S. is the author of 'Powerweb Research Methods', published 2002 under ISBN 9780072848984 and ISBN 0072848987.