This textbook is the outgrowth of teaching analytical optimization to aerospace engineering graduate students. To make the material available to the widest audience, the prerequisites are limited to calculus and differential equations. It is also a book about the mathematical aspects of optimal control theory. It was developed in an engineering environment from material learned by the author while applying it to the solution of engineering problems. One goal of the book is to help engineering graduate students learn the fundamentals which are needed to apply the methods to engineering problems. The examples are from geometry and elementary dynamical systems so that they can be understood by all engineering students. Another goal of this text is to unify optimization by using the differential of calculus to create the Taylor series expansions needed to derive the optimality conditions of optimal control theory.Hull, David G. is the author of 'Optimal Control Theory for Applications' with ISBN 9780387400709 and ISBN 0387400702.