Contents 1. Chemistry: An Introduction 1.1 Chemistry: An Introduction 1.2 What Is Chemistry? 1.3 Solving Problems Using a Scientific Approach Chemistry in Focus: A Mystifying Problem 1.4 The Scientific Method 1.5 Learning Chemistry Chemistry in Focus: An Important Component of Your Education 2. Measurements and Calculations 2.1 Scientific Notation 2.2 Units 2.3 Measurements of Length, Volume, and Mass Chemistry in Focus: Measurement: Past, Present, and Future 2.4 Uncertainty in Measurement 2.5 Significant Figures 2.6 Problem Solving and Dimensional Analysis 2.7 Temperature Conversions: An Approach to Problem Solving Chemistry in Focus: Ersatz Fog 2.8 Density 3. Matter and Energy 3.1 Matter 3.2 Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes 3.3 Elements and Compounds 3.4 Mixtures and Pure Substances 3.5 Separation of Mixtures 3.6 Energy and Energy Changes Chemistry in Focus: Nature Has Hot Plants Chemistry in Focus: Firewalking: Magic or Science? Cumulative Review for Chapters 1-3 4. Chemical Foundations: Elements, Atoms, and Ions 4.1 The Elements Chemistry in Focus: Trace Elements: Small but Crucial 4.2 Symbols for the Elements 4.3 Dalton''s Atomic Theory Chemistry in Focus: No Laughing Matter 4.4 Formulas of Compounds 4.5 The Structure of the Atom Chemistry in Focus: Glowing Tubes for Signs, Television Sets, and Computers 4.6 Introduction to the Modern Concept of Atomic Structure 4.7 Isotopes 4.8 Introduction to the Periodic Table 4.9 Natural States of the Elements 4.10 Ions Chemistry in Focus: Miracle Coatings 4.11 Compounds That Contain Ions 5. Nomenclature 5.1 Naming Compounds Chemistry in Focus: Sugar of Lead 5.2 Naming Compounds That Contain a Metal and a Nonmetal 5.3 Naming Binary Compounds That Contain Only Nonmetals (Type III) 5.4 Naming Binary Compounds: A Review 5.5 Naming Compounds That Contain Polyatomic Ions 5.6 Naming Acids 5.7 Writing Formulas from Names Cumulative Review for Chapters 4-5 6. Chemical Reactions: An Introduction 6.1 Evidence for a Chemical Reaction 6.2 Chemical Equations 6.3 Balancing Chemical Equations Chemistry in Focus: The Beetle That Shoots Straight 7. Reactions in Aqueous Solutions 7.1 Predicting Whether a Reaction Will Occur 7.2 Reactions in Which a Solid Forms 7.3 Describing Reactions in Aqueous Solutions 7.4 Reactions That Form Water: Acids and Bases 7.5 Reactions of Metals with Nonmetals (Oxidation-Reduction) 7.6 Ways to Classify Reactions Chemistry in Focus: Do We Age by Oxidation? Chemistry in Focus: Oxidation--Reduction Reactions Launch the Space Shuttle 7.7 Other Ways to Classify Reactions Cumulative Review for Chapters 6-7 8. Chemical Composition 8.1 Counting by Weighing Chemistry in Focus: Plastic That Talks and Listens 8.2 Atomic Masses: Counting Atoms by Weighing 8.3 The Mole 8.4 Molar Mass 8.5 Percent Composition of Compounds 8.6 Formulas of Compounds 8.7 Calculation of Empirical Formulas 8.8 Calculation of Molecular Formulas 9. Chemical Quantities 9.1 Information Given by Chemical Equations 9.2 Mole-Mole Relationships 9.3 Mass Calculations Chemistry in Focus: Methyl Alcohol: Fuel with a Future? 9.4 Calculations Involving a Limiting Reactant 9.5 Percent Yield Cumulative Review for Chapters 8-9 10. Modern Atomic Theory 10.1 Electromagnetic Radiation and Energy Chemistry in Focus: Plants Seeing Red Chemistry in Focus: Atmospheric Effects 10.2 The Energy Levels of Hydrogen 10.3 The Bohr Model of the Atom 10.4 The Wave Mechanical Model of the Atom 10.5 The Hydrogen Orbitals 10.6 The Wave Mechanical Model: Further Development 10.7 Electron Arrangements in the First Eighteen Atoms on the Periodic Table Chemistry in Focus: A Magnetic Moment 10.8 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table 10.9 Atomic Properties and the Periodic Table Chemistry in Focus: Fireworks 11. Chemical Bonding 11.1 Types of Chemical Bonds 11.2 Electronegativity 11.3 Bond Polarity and Dipole Moments 11.4 Stable Electron Configurations and Charges on Ions Chemistry in Focus: Composite Cars 11.5 Ionic Bonding and Structures of Ionic Compounds 11.6 Lewis Structures 11.7 Lewis Structures of Molecules with Multiple Bonds 11.8 Molecular Structure 11.9 Molecular Structure: The VSEPR Model Chemistry in Focus: Taste--It''s the Structure That Counts 11.10 Molecular Structure: Molecules with Double Bonds Cumulative Review for Chapters 10-11 12. Gases 12.1 Pressure 12.2 Pressure and Volume: Boyle''s Law 12.3 Volume and Temperature: Charles''s Law 12.4 Volume and Moles: Avogadro''s Law 12.5 The Ideal Gas Law Chemistry in Focus: Snacks Need Chemistry, Too! 12.6 Dalton''s Law of Partial Pressures 12.7 Laws and Models: A Review 12.8 The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases 12.9 The Implications of the Kinetic Molecular Theory 12.10 Gas Stoichiometry 13. Liquids and Solids 13.1 Water and Its Phase Changes 13.2 Energy Requirements for the Changes of State Chemistry in Focus: Whales Need Changes of State 13.3 Intermolecular Forces 13.4 Evaporation and Vapor Pressure 13.5 The Solid State: Types of Solids 13.6 Bonding in Solids Chemistry in Focus: Reducing Friction Chemistry in Focus: Metal with a Memory 14. Solutions 14.1 Solubility Chemistry in Focus: Green Chemistry 14.2 Solution Composition: An Introduction 14.3 Solution Composition: Mass Percent 14.4 Solution Composition: Molarity 14.5 Dilution 14.6 Stoichiometry of Solution Reactions 14.7 Neutralization Reactions 14.8 Solution Composition: Normality Cumulative Review for Chapters 12-14 15. Acids and Bases 15.1 Acids and Bases Chemistry in Focus: Gum That Foams 15.2 Acid Strength Chemistry in Focus: Plants Fight Back 15.3 Water as an Acid and a Base 15.4 The pH Scale Chemistry in Focus: Airplane Rash 15.5 Calculating the pH of Strong Acid Solutions 15.6 Buffered Solutions 16. Equilibrium 16.1 How Chemical Reactions Occur 16.2 Conditions That Affect Reaction Rates Chemistry in Focus: Protecting the Ozone 16.3 The Equilibrium Condition 16.4 Chemical Equilibrium: A Dynamic Condition 16.5 The Equilibrium Constant: An Introduction 16.6 Heterogeneous Equilibria 16.7 Le ChÂtelier''s Principle 16.8 Applications Involving the Equilibrium Constant 16.9 Solubility Equilibria Cumulative Review for Chapters 15-16 17. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions and Electrochemistry 17.1 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 17.2 Oxidation States 17.3 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Between Nonmetals 17.4 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Reactions by the Half-Reaction Method 17.5 Electrochemistry: An Introduction 17.6 Batteries Chemistry in Focus: An Engine for the Twenty-First Century 17.7 Corrosion 17.8 Electrolysis 18. Radioactivity and Nuclear Energy 18.1 Radioactive Decay 18.2 Nuclear Transformations 18.3 Detection of Radioactivity and the Concept of Half-life 18.4 Dating by Radioactivity Chemistry in Focus: Dating Diamonds 18.5 Medical Applications of Radioactivity 18.6 Nuclear Energy 18.7 Nuclear Fission 18.8 Nuclear Reactors 18.9 Nuclear Fusion Chemistry in Focus: Stellar Nucleosynthesis 18.10 Effects of Radiation Chemistry in Focus: Nuclear Waste Disposal 19. Organic Chemistry 19.1 Carbon Bonding 19.2 Alkanes 19.3 Structural Formulas and Isomerism 19.4 Naming AlSteven S. Zumdahl is the author of 'Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation', published 1999 under ISBN 9780395955369 and ISBN 039595536X.