This classic book on formal languages, automata theory, and computational complexity has been updated to present theoretical concepts in a concise and straightforward manner with the increase of hands-on, practical applications. This new edition comes with Gradiance, an online assessment tool developed for computer science. Gradiance is the most advanced online assessment tool developed for the computer science discipline. With its innovative underlying technology, Gradiance turns basic homework assignments and programming labs into an interactive learning experience for students. By using a series of root questions and hints, it not only tests a students capability, but actually simulates a one-on-one teacher-student tutorial that allows for the student to more easily learn the material. Through the programming labs, instructors are capable of testing, tracking, and honing their students skills, both in terms of syntax and semantics, with an unprecedented level of assessment never before offered. For more information about Gradiance, please visit www.aw.com/gradiance .John E. Hopcroft is the author of 'Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages, and Computation (3rd Edition)', published 2006 under ISBN 9780321455369 and ISBN 0321455363.