Preface This anthology is a brief, balanced collection of primary materials organized chronologically and focused on global themes. In preparing this collection, we had three concerns in mind. First, any informed understanding of the world at the opening of the third millennium when the world is rapidly becoming one must begin with history. We believe the most useful mode of historical study--particularly for college students--is world history. Because men and women make history, the documents we have depict the variety of their experiences over time on a global scale. To help students study and appreciate these experiences, we have included excerpts both from classic texts and from less familiar but equally illustrative material. The resulting selection of readings illustrates patterns of global change and exchange, as well as the distinct features of the major civilizations. Second, to encourage the comparative study of world history and to reinforce the underlying links between civilizations, we have organized the readings into chronological sections. By doing so, we hope to underscore global patterns of development and, at the same time, give our readers access to documents of special interest. Third, to help with the understanding and retention of our reading selections, particularly those likely to be unfamiliar to students, we have included introductory comments as well as questions to consider. We hope this material will help students gain a better understanding of the text and connect their historical study to contemporary problems and issues. Our students, particularly in their questions and criticisms, have shaped our work from the outset more than they know. Many of our colleagues at James Madison University have also helped immeasurably. They provided insights and suggestions to make this a better book. Michael J. Galgano, Head, Department of History, has assisted us at every turn: He enthusiastically found for us the means and time to complete this project. Mary Louise Loe not only contributed the selections on Russia and Soviet history but helped us throughout our work. Nicholas Miller of Boise State University; John A. Murphy of University College, Cork, Republic of Ireland; and John O. Hunwick of Northwestern University kindly advised us on Serbian, Irish, and African selections. The fourth edition ofThe Global Experience: Readings in World Historycontains new sections, new selections, and new translations, as well as some changes in the selections published in our third edition. In Volume I, approximately twenty-five percent of the selections are new. Among the new selections in Volume I are The Egyptian Creation Story: "The Creation According to Ra"; The Babylonian Code of Hammurabi; Homer,The Iliad;Pure Land Scripture,Sukhavativyuha;Thucydides on the Plague andPeloponnesian War;Plutarch, "Lycurgus," on the Spartan Way of Life; St: Augustine of Hippo, The Just War; Paulus Orosius,History Against the Pagans;Procopius,History of the WarsandThe Secret History;Law Codes of the Salian Franks; Ibn Fadlan, Impressions of Vikings in Early Russia; Michael Psellus,Chronographia,"Empress Zoe"; Murasaki Shikibu,The Tale of Genji; Charles Borromeo, Instructions to Confessors;Bernardino de Sahagun, Aztec Festival and the Conquest; An Aztec Account of the Conquest of Mexico:The Broken Spears;Pope Paul III,"Indians are Men,"1537; Sepulveda, Just War Against Barbarians, 1550. Among the new additions to Volume II are An Aztec Account of the Conquest of Mexico:The Broken Spears;James Harrington, "The Commonwealth of Oceana"; Sir William Petty,PoliticalArithmetic; Enfumadesin French Algeria: Three Reports; Arthur de Gobineau,The Inequality of Human Races;U.S. Congress, The Chinese Exclusion Acts, 1882, 1892; Russo-Japanese War, 19041905,Imperial Rescript;JoRiley, Philip F. is the author of 'Global Experience Readings in World History Since 1550', published 2001 under ISBN 9780130195692 and ISBN 0130195693.