Over the years we have had the opportunity to develop programs and teach career counseling in many different settings. These settings include the school system, colleges and universities, unemployment centers, and immigrant transition services. All of these contexts present opportunities and challenges. What we have observed is that whatever the context, certain basic processes seem to define good career counseling. In addition to our work within the United States and Canada, we have offered career counselor training in international contexts in both Europe and Asia. While there certainly were some cultural variables to be considered, there were some basic career counseling processes that seemed to fit a variety of intercultural contexts. Our plan with this book is to focus on some of the basic career counseling processes that we have observed in our counselor training. We present information and a structure that is robust and, as such, can be widely applied. We also address some emerging issues such as Web-based counseling. To make the book more readable, we use case studies throughout. Chapter 1 sets the foundation for the book. We affirm our belief in quality career counseling and explore various myths and emerging trends. In this chapter we define career counseling and outline the competencies that counselors need to pursue as part of their training agenda. As a supplement to this chapter we include the NCDA guidelines for competency standards and ethical guidelines as appendices at the back of the book. A starting point in counselor training is usually a basic understanding of some career counseling theories. With this in mind, in Chapter 2 we briefly examine the work of John Holland, Donald Super, and John Krumboltz, as well as some theorists within the constructivist tradition. For illustration purposes we begin with a case study and then look at how the counseling process would differ depending on one's theoretical position. In Chapter 3 we make the case that career counseling is more than an individual activity. It is important to take account of both individual and contextual variables. Career planning must be imbedded within social and economic realities. The first three chapters lay a foundation for the career counseling process. In Chapter 4 there is an emphasis on the importance of the counseling relationship and an exploration of various ways of facilitating the relationship. There also are suggestions for how to cope with client reluctance. In Chapter 5 the focus is on different ways of elaborating a client's career concerns. Part of this process is to define client constraint statements and to specify a clear direction. One way to view client concerns is to use metaphors as a means of visualizing the problem. Chapters 6 and 7 address the exploration process. In Chapter 6 special attention is given to different ways of self-exploration. Within this chapter are illustrations of different questioning methods, storytelling, metaphors and structured assessment techniques. Chapter 7 shifts the exploration process to more contextual and economic factors. There also is consideration of how'each person has his or her own personal labor market. The impact of the World Wide Web on counseling is considerable, and in Chapter 8 we focus specifically on ways in which the Web can support career counseling practice. We discuss various websites for career assessment and information and also provide some guidelines for how to evaluate the quality of websites. In keeping with the process orientation of this book, we also explore ways of using the website in various counseling situations. Chapters 9,10 and 11 move the counseling process forward from exploration to consolidation, decision making, action planning, evaluation, and follow-through. This is the point where information is brought together, decisions are made, and action plans are constructed. WhileAmundson, Norman E. is the author of 'Essential Elements of Career Counseling Processes and Techniques', published 2004 under ISBN 9780131122710 and ISBN 0131122711.