Preface. I. STRATEGIES FOR READING AND WRITING ARGUMENTS. 1. Understanding Persuasion: Thinking Like a Negotiator. Argument. What Makes an Argument. The Uses of Argument. Debate. Moving from Debate to Dialogue. Dialogue. Deliberation. "Taking a 'War of Words' Too Literally," by Deborah Tannen. Sample Arguments for Analysis. "The Case Against Tipping," by Michael Lewis. "The Consequences of 'Carnage as Entertainment,'" by John Ellis Exercises.2. Reading Arguments: Thinking Like a Critic. Why Read Critically? Preview the Reading. Skim the Reading. Sample Argument for Analysis. "Binge Drinking Must Be Stopped," by Henry Wechsler. Consider Your Own Experience. Annotate the Reading. Summarize the Reading. Analyze and Evaluate the Reading. Argue with the Reading. Create a Debate and Dialogue Between Two or More Readings. Sample Argument for Analysis. "Child Care for College Students," by Froma Harrop. Construct a Debate. Sample Arguments for Analysis. "Letter to the Editor" from the Washington Post, by Kathryn Stewart and Corina Sole. "Letter to the Editor" from the Times-Picayune, James C. Carter, S.J. Deliberate about the Readings. Look for Logical Fallacies. Exercises.3. Finding Arguments: Thinking Like a Writer. The Writing Process. Finding Topics to Argue. Developing Argumentative Topics. Refining Topics. Exercises.4. Addressing Audiences: Thinking Like a Reader. The Target Audience. The General Audience. Guidelines for Knowing Your Audience. Adapting to Your Readers'Attitudes. Sample Arguments for Analysis. "Don't Forget the Smokers," by C. Everett Koop. "What the Antismoking Zealots Really Crave," by Jeff Jacoby. "Media Have Fallen for Misguided Antismoking Campaign," by Robert J. Samuelson. Choosing Your Words. Exercises.5. Shaping Arguments: Thinking Like an Architect. Components of an Argument. Sample Argument for Analysis. "Indian Bones," by Clara Spotted Elk. Analyzing the Structure. Sample Argument for Analysis. "I Am the Enemy," by Ron Karpati. Analyzing the Structure. Two Basic Shapes for Arguments. Sample Arguments for Analysis. "Should We Cut This Out? Human Cloning Is Not as Scary as It Sounds," by Robert Wachbroit. Analysis of a Position Argument. Sample Argument for Analysis. "Schools Can Help to Prevent Teen Pregnancy," by Martha Balash (student essay). Questions for Analysis and Discussion.6. Using Evidence: Thinking Like an Advocate. How Much Evidence Is Enough? Why Arguments Need Supporting Evidence. Forms of Evidence. Some Tips about Supporting Evidence. Sample Argument for Analysis. "Violent Culture: The Media, the Internet, and Placing Blame," by Darren Beals (student essay).7. Establishing Claims: Thinking Like a Skeptic. The Toulmin Model. Toulmin's Terms. Field Work: Excavating Warrants. Sample Arguments for Analysis. "Why They Kill Their Newborns," by Steven Pinker. An Analysis Based on the Toulmin Model. "Arguing for Infanticide," by Michael Kelley. Sample Argument for Analysis. "Did I Miss Something?" by Lowell Putnam (student essay).8. Visual Arguments: Thinking Like an Illustrator. Common Forms of Visual Arguments. Analyzing Visual Arguments. Art. Ancillary Graphics: Tables, Charts, and Graphs.9. ResearchinGoshgarian, Gary is the author of 'Dialogues An Argument, Rhetoric, and Reader', published 2002 under ISBN 9780321101464 and ISBN 0321101464.