1. Thinking Critically. Sarah, Selina, and Ben. Ad Hominem Arguments. Fallacy of Appeal to Ignorance. Appeal to Authority. Dilemma Arguments. Strawman Fallacy. Fallacy of Begging the Question. Fallacy of Irrelevant Reason. Study Questions. Exercises. Glossary. Additional Resources. 2. Religion and Philosophy. The Cosmological Argument. The Design Argument. Intuitive Knowledge of God. The Problem of Evil. God is Beyond Understanding. Concepts of God. The Benefits of Belief in God. Pascal's Wager. God and Science. Readings: David Hume, Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion. Walter Stace, Time and Eternity. Denis Diderot, "Conversation with MarechalÉ de _______." Study Questions. Exercises. Glossary. Additional Resources. 3. What Can we Know? Empiricism. Rationalism. Kant. Readings: Rene Descartes, Meditations on First Philosophy. John Locke, Essay Concerning Human Understanding. David Hume, An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding. Exercises. 4. The Foundations of Knowledge. Kant and the Importance of Perspective. Thomas Kuhn and Scientific Theory. Karl Popper. Belief Systems. Pragmatism. Readings: Charles Sanders Peirce, "The Fixation of Belief." Karl Popper, "The Bucket and the Searchlight: Two Theories of Knowledge." Study Questions. Exercises. Glossary. Additional Resources. 5. The Nature of Mind. Descartes and Mind-Body Dualism. Are Thoughts Private? Solipsism. Wittgenstein and Privacy. Dualistic Interactionism. Malebranche and Occasionalism. Leibniz and Mind-Body Parallelism. Neuroscience and Mind-Body Dualism. Epiphenomenalism. Idealism. Spinoza and the Dual Aspect Theory. Eliminative Materialism. Readings: RenÉ Descartes, Meditations on First Philosophy. Gilbert Ryle, Concept of Mind. Study Questions. Exercises. Glossary. Additional Resources. 6. Free Will. Determinism and Fatalism. Determinism and Choice. Determinism vs. Freedom. God and Determinism. Arguing for Determinism. Compatibilist Free Will. Libertarian Free Will. Existentialist Free Will. Free Will and Indeterminacy. Hume's Compatibilism. Readings: Lorenzo Valla, "Dialogue on Free Will." David Hume, "Of Liberty and Necessity." C. A. Campbell, "Has the Self 'Free Will'?" Study Questions. Exercises. Glossary. Additional Resources. 7. Further Adventures with Free Will. Frankfurt's Hierarchical Compatibilism. Rationalist Compatibilism. Determinism and Spontaneity. Moral ResponsibilWaller, Bruce N. is the author of 'Coffee And Philosophy A Conversational Introduction To Philosophy With Readings', published 2005 under ISBN 9780321330932 and ISBN 0321330935.