Of the various English translations of Freud's major works to appear in his lifetime, only one was authorized by Freud himself: The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud under the general editorship of James Strachey. Freud approved the overall editorial plan, specific renderings of key words and phrases, and the addition of valuable notes, both bibliographical and explanatory. Many of the translations were done by Strachey himself; the rest were prepared under his supervision. The result was to place the Standard Edition in a position of unquestioned supremacy over all other existing versions. Newly designed in a uniform format, each new paperback in the Standard Edition opens with a biographical essay on Freud's life and work-along with a note on the individual volume-by Peter Gay, Sterling Professor of History at Yale. Civilization and Its Discontents During the summer of 1929, Freud worked on what became this seminal volume of twentieth-century thought. It stands as a brilliant summary of the views on culture from a psycho-analytic perspective that he had been developing since the turn of the century. It is both witness and tribute to the late theory of mind-the so-called structural theory, with its stress on aggression, indeed the death drive, as the pitiless adversary of eros.Freud, Sigmund is the author of 'Civilization and Its Discontents/Standard Edition', published 1989 under ISBN 9780393301588 and ISBN 0393301583.