The two distinct approaches to environmental policy include direct regulation -- or "command and control" policies -- and regulation by economic, or market-based incentives. This book is the first to provide real-word comparisons of the costs and outcomes of these strategies. In a unique format, case studies contrast direct regulation on one side of the Atlantic with an incentive policy on the other. For example, Germany's direct regulation of SO2 emissions is compared with an incentive approach in the U.S. Direct regulation of water pollution via the U.S. Clean Water Act is contrasted with Holland's incentive-based system. Additional studies contrast solutions for eliminating leaded gasoline and reducing nitrogen oxide emissions, CFCs, and chlorinated solvents. The cases in Choosing Environmental Policy allow the sharpest comparisons of direct regulation and incentive-based strategies. In practice, environmental policy is often a mix of both instruments. This innovative investigation will interest scholars, students, and policymakers who want more precise information as to what type of "blend" is most effective.Harrington, Winston is the author of 'Choosing Environmental Policy Comparing Instruments And Outcomes In The United States And Europe', published 2004 under ISBN 9781891853883 and ISBN 1891853880.