This text was designed for an introductory one-semester course in biological electron microscopy and is intended to provide an introduction to all of the major technical approaches for sample preparation and instrumentation utilization to answer cytological questions. It covers conventional light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, intermediate and high voltage transmission electron microscopy, digital imaging and telemedicine, cryotechniques, fixation protocols, cytochemistry and immunocytochemistry, photography and photomicroscopy. The text is organized with a survey of each subject, and a techniques section, where appropriate, with tried-and-true methods that will produce publishable results. The theory behind various technical approaches is provided to help the reader troubleshoot problems. While the techniques sections are not meant to be encyclopaedic, they should serve as a broadly applicable starting point for a variety of approaches to cytological research.Dykstra, Michael J. is the author of 'Biological Electron Microscopy Theory, Techniques, and Troubleshooting', published 2004 under ISBN 9780306477492 and ISBN 0306477491.