This text provides numerous examples and thorough coverage of procedures for assessing and instructing struggling readers of all ages. In keeping with current theory, the text emphasizes prevention and early intervention. It is based on the premise that student performance is variable and that assessment and instruction are planned and modified to meet the varied needs and levels of students. Gunning does not subscribe to a medical model that emphasizes deficiencies, but rather focuses on what students can do. This text calls for inclusion, not exclusion, but recognizes that struggling learners need expert, carefully planned assessment and instruction. Assessment coverage includes a grounding in basic concepts of tests and measurement. While formal, standardized measures are described, emphasis is placed upon informal but highly regarded techniques such as the informal reading inventory, miscue analysis, running records, observation, think-alouds, holistic scoring of writing, and portfolio assessment. In addition to chapters devoted specifically to assessment, ways to connect assessment and instruction are mentioned throughout the text. Coverage of instructional techniques is thorough and practical. Nine chapters are devoted to instructional techniques.Gunning, Thomas G. is the author of 'Assessing and Correcting Reading and Writing Difficulties', published 2001 under ISBN 9780205332557 and ISBN 0205332552.