UNIT 1. New World Order 1. Clash of Globalizations, Stanley Hoffmann, Foreign Affairs , July/August 2002 The events of September 11, 2001, marked the beginning of a new era, but what this means in practice is the subject of debate. Stanley Hoffman summarizes current approaches used to understand international relations and concludes that three realities characterize the modern state system : Great powers rivalries have not disappeared; interstate war is becoming less common; and all states' foreign policies are increasingly being shaped by domestic politics, as well as by economic and milit 2. Transnational Terrorism and the al Qaeda Model: Confronting New Realities, Paul J. Smith, Parameters , Summer 2002 Al Qaeda represents the worst that globalization has to offer. Its transnational tentacles have a virus-like ability to infect indigenous groups. The lesson to be learned from al Qaeda is that terrorist groups can now exist in a transnational milieu, divorced from state-driven constraints. Even if we witness the demise of al Qaeda, we are not likely to witness the demise of its model. 3. Sovereignty, Stephen D. Krasner, Foreign Policy , January/February 2001 "The idea of states as autonomous, independent entities is collapsing under the combined onslaught of monetary unions, CNN, the Internet, and nongovernmental organizations. But those who proclaim the death of sovereignty misread history. The nation-state has a keen instinct for survival and has so far adapted to new challenges even the challenge of globalization." 4. Reconciling Non-Intervention and Human Rights, Douglas T. Stuart, UN Chronicle , August 2001 As nation-states increasingly intervene in other countries, it is becoming harder to skirt a confrontation between the traditional commitment to state sovereignty and the growing commitment to the protection of basic human rights. Douglas Stuart offers a definition of humanitarian intervention and seven guidelines for determining the circumstances under which humanitarian intervention should be authorized and the action that should be taken. UNIT 2. World Economy 5. Terrorism's Financial Lifeline: Can It Be Severed?, Kimberley L. Thachuk, Strategic Forum , May 2002 The September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks highlighted the importance of rogue capital for terrorist and criminal groups who use both traditional and sophisticated techniques to build multinational empires. Solutions require more concerted efforts to implement G-8 standards for transparent banking practices, building the capacity to implement these standards and curb corrupt practices worldwide. 6. Measuring Globalization, Foreign Policy , January/February 2001 Contrary to popular perceptions, the rate of global integration appears to be increasing more slowly. The A. T. Kearney/ Foreign Policy Magazine Globalization Index dissects the complex forces driving the integration of ideas, people, and economics worldwide. 7. The Rich Should Not Forget the ROW (Rest of the World), Jose Ramos-Horta, New Perspectives Quarterly , Fall 2001 Jose Ramos-Horta, Nobel Peace Prize winner of 1996, proposes a future agenda to stop the growing gap between the rich and poor in the world today. The agenda includes debt cancellation for nation-states with per capita income of less than $1,000, increased development aid, improved market access, and promotion of an anti-poverty coalition. 8. Prisoners of Geography, Ricardo Hausmann, Foreign Policy , January/February 2001 "Economic development experts promise that with the correct mix of promarket policies, poor countries will eventually prosper. But policy isn't the problemgeography is. Tropical, landlocked nations may never enjoy access to the markets and new technologies they need to flourish in the global economy." UNIT 3. Weapons of Mass Destruction 9. Nuclear Nightmares, Bill Keller, New York Times Magazine , May 26, 2002 "Experts on terrorism and proliferation agree that sooner or later an attack will happen in the United States. When and how remain the most challenging questions." Given the difficulties involved in obtaining the amount of fissile materials needed for a full-fledged bomb, many experts are now predicting that terrorists are most likely to use radiation and other nuclear materials to cause disruptions, terror, and deaths. 10. Return of the Nuclear Debate, Leon Fuerth, The Washington Quarterly , Autumn 2001 The Bush administration is still formulating several interrelated defense initiatives concerned with nuclear modernization, arms control, ballistic missile defense, space dominance, and the "transformation" of conventional forces. Leon Fuerth summarizes and critiques the Bush administration's views on these issues. According to Fuerth, strategic stability cannot be imposed; it must be set in place by mutual consent. 11. In North Korea and Pakistan, Deep Roots of Nuclear Barter, David E. Sanger, New York Times , November 24, 2002 In a perfect marriage of interests, Pakistan gave North Korea many of the designs for gas centrifuges and machinery needed to make highly enriched uranium. In exchange, North Korea gave Pakistan the plans to build a missile capable of hitting India. In a few years, North Korea may have nuclear weapons that put citizens and U.S. troops at risk in South Korea, Japan, and much of Asia, while Pakistan will soon be able to threaten to attack India with a missile-launched nuclear warhead. 12. Towards an Internet Civil Defence Against Bioterrorism, Ronald E. LaPorte et al., The Lancet Infectious Diseases , September 2001 There is little evidence that the large resources put into bioterrorism preparedness work. We must face the disturbing fact that it is very difficult to predict and guard against bioterrorism because there are too many targets, too many means to penetrate the targets, and the bioterrorists are crafty. Instead of building an inflexible Maginot line of defense as we are now, perhaps we should consider an ever alert, flexible electronic matrix of civil defense. UNIT 4. North America Part A. The United States 13. A Grand Strategy of Transformation, John Lewis Gaddis, Foreign Policy , November/December 2002 John Lewis Gaddis reviews what the Bush administration's new National Security Strategy, released in September 2002, does and does not say. The new policy could represent the most sweeping shift in U.S. grand strategy since the beginning of the cold war. But its success depends on the willingness of the rest of the world to welcome U.S. power with open arms. 14. The Eagle Has Crash Landed, Immanuel Wallerstein, Foreign Policy , July/August 2002 Immanuel Wallerstein bucks conventional wisdom by arguing that APurkitt, Helen E. is the author of 'Annual Editions World Politics 03/04', published 2003 under ISBN 9780072838190 and ISBN 0072838191.